Artificial insemination: A concentrated dose of sperm from
a woman’s partner or a donor is injected into the woman’s
reproductive tract during ovulation.
Donor insemination (or “sperm donation”): Artificial
insemination (see above) is performed using a donor’s sperm.
This procedure is used when the intended father is infertile.
In vitro fertilization (IVF): Eggs are
removed from a woman’s ovaries and then, in a lab, are fertilized
with sperm from her partner or a donor. The resulting embryos are
placed in her uterus.
Gamete intrafallopian transfter (GIFT):
An egg is surgically removed from a woman's ovary and combined with
sperm. The and egg and sperm mixture is placed immediately into
the fallopian tube, where fertilization takes place.
Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT):
Similarly to GIFT (see above), egg and sperm are mixed in the lab
and then placed in the woman’s fallopian tubes. But in ZIFT,
a physician makes sure the egg is fertilized before placing it in
the fallopian tubes.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI):
To treat male infertility, a single sperm is injected directly into
a single egg to achieve fertilization, and the resulting embryo
is then placed in the uterus of the intended mother.
Egg donation (also called “ovum donation”):
This procedure makes it possible for a woman who is past menopause
or has poor-quality eggs to become pregnant and give birth using
the eggs of another woman. Eggs are retrieved from the donor woman
and fertilized with the intended father’s sperm using in vitro
fertilization in the lab. The resulting embryos are transferred
to the intended mother’s uterus. The baby has a genetic link
to the father, but not the mother.
Gestational carrier: This is an option for women who are
able to conceive but unable to carry a pregnancy. The intended mother’s
egg is retrieved and, in the lab, mixed with her partner’s
sperm. The resulting embryo is then transferred into the uterus
of a gestational carrier – another woman who carries and delivers
the child, but has no genetic link to the fetus she carries.
Surrogate: Similarly to a gestational carrier, a surrogate
carries and delivers a child for another couple. Unlike a gestational
carrier, however, the surrogate mother uses her own egg (usually
mixed with the sperm of the intended father.)
Embryo donation: Infertile couples who have completed their
families often have remaining embryos kept frozen in a lab. They
can now donate these embryos to another infertile couple, to be
implanted in the intended mother, who carries the pregnancy to term.